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NEWT
Nov. 3, 2009, 09:23 AM
Hi,
I noticed on some websites that this vaccine can be given only once every two or three years. My vet just sent a reminder that she is due and its only been one year. I don't mind taking her in for the vaccine but if its not necessary then I'll just get the rabies only. Any opinions?

cloudyandcallie
Nov. 3, 2009, 09:27 AM
I've always vaccinated once a year. I lost a dog to lepto when i was a kid, and the disease is awful. I've seen dogs with parvo at the vets that were terminal. Better to "waste" $ on a shot that isn't needed (provided your dogs don't have reactions to dead virus shots) than to have a dog die because you didn't vaccinate each year. Ditto with rabies shots. The yearly shot really isn't necessary as the vaccine lasts longer, but why chance your dog getting rabies?

And I vaccinate my horses 2x a year. (but don't do all the shots the same day, sometimes I do not get the combo shots for this reason.) I wonder why there are lepto shots for cows but not for horses, since horses are exposed to deer and rats? I should ask my vet that!

Bluey
Nov. 3, 2009, 11:14 AM
Lepto is one vaccine for cows, you don't want them to come down with that either.
I lost a horse to lepto, but horses are generally not very apt to get sick with it.

My little dog reacts to shots with lepto in it and we have oodles of rabbits, that are the main carrier here.
She had her three puppy shots and reacted badly to each one, even divided, not all diseases in one shot.

She finally got one again this year and didn't have a reaction, so her immune system grew up finally, we hope.

You really need to ask your vet there, because depending on your locale and dog exposure to wildlife, you may or not need some vaccines.

TripleRipple
Nov. 3, 2009, 01:17 PM
fwiw, I am in Central Oregon and all the vets I've spoken with are recommending this formerly annual vaccine be done every 3 years now. No more annual shot notices are coming in the mail.

As to rabies, here it is required every 3 years, no change on that.

Iron Horse Farm
Nov. 3, 2009, 01:43 PM
fwiw, I am in Central Oregon and all the vets I've spoken with are recommending this formerly annual vaccine be done every 3 years now. No more annual shot notices are coming in the mail.

As to rabies, here it is required every 3 years, no change on that.

To clarify. There is now a 3 year DHLPP. THere is still an annual DHLPP. If your vet gives the three year it is obviously fine to go three years, however, don't go three years if you have only received the annual vaccine. Also, expect topay more for the 3 year vaccine.

There is no need to have a Rabies vaccine yearly (after the 1st one). The vaccine has been tested to have high titers as far out as 10 years, however three years has been determined to be the "catch all". No need to help in the vaccine resistance by overvaccinating.

BuddyRoo
Nov. 3, 2009, 01:51 PM
Well, beyond legalities (Rabies--because it's zoonotic and poses a risk to humans), the answer to your question about whether the dog "needs" it or not from an immunity standpoint can only be answered by checking titers. If the dog still has an appropriate level of vaccine titers, then from an immunology standpoint, the dog does not need to be vaccinated.

That said, for MOST pets, getting the vaccine annually is safe and is also less expensive than checking titers for everything and possibly needing to vaccinate anyway, so it's easier on the owners and the veterinarian to just go ahead and vaccinate.

When my dog began having issues with what we *thought* was epilepsy, my veterinarian and I discussed it and decided that moving forward we would check titers to avoid triggering another set of cluster seizures. We weren't really sure what the triggers were at the time, but vaccines have been correlated to epileptic activity (correlation does not necessarily equate to causation though)

So.

If your dog is not often in situations where proof of annual vaccines are required (like boarding facilities, obedience training, etc etc) then you may want to look into checking titers.

Arizona DQ
Nov. 3, 2009, 01:51 PM
The AVMA has changed the vaccine protocol to three years vice one. The increase in autoimmune diseases, etc has caused the veterinary community to relook the entire vaccine protocol.

Below is the recommendations from Dr Jean Dodds. She has been a forerunner in the discussions on the good versus bad vaccine protocol of old.

Here is Dr. W. Jean Dodds' Latest Recommendation Vaccination Schedule for those of you who are interested.

http://www.weim.net/emberweims/Vaccine.html


Dr. Jean Dodds' Recommended Vaccination Schedule

Distemper (MLV)
Initial (e.g. Intervet Progard Puppy) 9 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 - 20 weeks 1st Annual Booster At 1 year MLV Distemper/ Parvovirus only Re-Administration Interval None needed.
Duration of immunity 7.5 / 15 years by studies. Probably lifetime. Longer studies pending.
Comments Can have numerous side effects if given too young (< 8 weeks).

Parvovirus (MLV)
Initial (e.g. Intervet Progard Puppy) 9 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 - 20 weeks 1st Annual BoosterAt 1 year MLV Distemper/ Parvovirus only Re-Administration Interval None needed.
Duration of immunity 7.5 years by studies. Probably lifetime. Longer studies pending.
Comments At 6 weeks of age, only 30% of puppies are protected but 100% are exposed to the virus at the vet clinic.

Rabies (killed)
Initial 24 weeks or older
1st Annual BoosterAt 1 year (give 3-4 weeks apart from Dist/Parvo booster) Killed 3 year rabies vaccine Re-Administration Interval 3 yr. vaccine given as required by law in California (follow your state/provincial requirements) Comments rabid animals may infect dogs.

Vaccines Not Recommended For Dogs

Distemper & Parvo @ 6 weeks or younger
Not recommended.
At this age, maternal antibodies form the mothers milk (colostrum) will neutralize the vaccine and only 30% for puppies will be protected. 100% will be exposed to the virus at the vet clinic.

Corona
Not recommended.
1.) Disease only affects dogs <6 weeks of age.
2.) Rare disease: TAMU has seen only one case in seven years.
3.) Mild self-limiting disease.
4.) Efficacy of the vaccine is questionable.

Leptospirosis
Not recommended
1) There are an average of 12 cases reported annually in California.
2) Side effects common.
3) Most commonly used vaccine contains the wrong serovars. (There is no cross-protection of serovars) There is a new vaccine with 2 new serovars. Two vaccinations twice per year would be required for protection.).
4) Risk outweighs benefits.

Lyme
Not recommended
1) Low risk in California.
2) 85% of cases are in 9 New England states and Wisconsin.
3) Possible side effect of polyarthritis from whole cell bacterin.

Boretella
(Intranasal)
(killed) Only recommended 3 days prior to boarding when required.
Protects against 2 of the possible 8 causes of kennel cough.
Duration of immunity 6 months.

Giardia
Not recommended
Efficacy of vaccine unsubstantiated by independent studies

There are two types of vaccines currently available to veterinarians: modified-live vaccines and inactivated ("killed") vaccines.

Immunization Schedules

There is a great deal of controversy and confusion surrounding the appropriate immunization schedule, especially with the availability of modified-live vaccines and breeders who have experienced postvaccinal problems when using some of these vaccines. It is also important to not begin a vaccination program while maternal antibodies are still active and present in the puppy from the mother's colostrum. The maternal antibodies identify the vaccines as infectious organisms and destroy them before they can stimulate an immune response.

Many breeders and owners have sought a safer immunization program.

Modified Live Vaccines (MLV)

Modified-live vaccines contain a weakened strain of the disease causing agent. Weakening of the agent is typically accomplished by chemical means or by genetic engineering. These vaccines replicate within the host, thus increasing the amount of material available for provoking an immune response without inducing clinical illness. This provocation primes the immune system to mount a vigorous response if the disease causing agent is ever introduced to the animal. Further, the immunity provided by a modified-live vaccine develops rather swiftly and since they mimic infection with the actual disease agent, it provides the best immune response.

Inactivated Vaccines (Killed)

Inactivated vaccines contain killed disease causing agents. Since the agent is killed, it is much more stable and has a longer shelf life, there is no possibility that they will revert to a virulent form, and they never spread from the vaccinated host to other animals. They are also safe for use in pregnant animals (a developing fetus may be susceptible to damage by some of the disease agents, even though attenuated, present in modified-live vaccines). Although more than a single dose of vaccine is always required and the duration of immunity is generally shorter, inactivated vaccines are regaining importance in this age of retrovirus and herpesvirus infections and concern about the safety of genetically modified microorganisms. Inactivated vaccines available for use in dogs include rabies, canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, etc.

W. Jean Dodds, DVM
HEMOPET
938 Stanford Street
Santa Monica, CA 90403
310/ 828-4804
fax: 310/ 828-8251

Note: This schedule is the one I recommend and should not be interpreted to mean that other protocols recommended by a veterinarian would be less satisfactory. It's a matter of professional judgment and choice. For breeds or families of dogs susceptible to or affected with immune dysfunction, immune-mediated disease, immune-reactions associated with vaccinations, or autoimmune endocrine disease (e.g., thyroiditis, Addison's or Cushing's disease, diabetes, etc.) the above protocol is recommended.

After 1 year, annually measure serum antibody titers against specific canine infectious agents such as distemper and parvovirus. This is especially recommended for animals previously experiencing adverse vaccine reactions or breeds at higher risk for such reactions (e.g., Weimaraner, Akita, American Eskimo, Great Dane).

Another alternative to booster vaccinations is homeopathic nosodes. This option is considered an unconventional treatment that has not been scientifically proven to be efficacious. One controlled parvovirus nosode study did not adequately protect puppies under challenged conditions. However, data from Europe and clinical experience in North America support its use. If veterinarians choose to use homeopathic nosodes, their clients should be provided with an appropriate disclaimer and written informed consent should be obtained.

I use only killed 3 year rabies vaccine for adults and give it separated from other vaccines by 3-4 weeks. In some states, they may be able to give titer test result in lieu of booster.

I do NOT use Bordetella, corona virus, leptospirosis or Lyme vaccines unless these diseases are endemic in the local area pr specific kennel. Furthermore, the currently licensed leptospira bacterins do not contain the serovars causing the majority of clinical leptospirosis today.

I do NOT recommend vaccinating bitches during estrus, pregnancy or lactation.

W. Jean Dodds, DVM
HEMOPET
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Caveats: NONE

Iron Horse Farm
Nov. 3, 2009, 02:12 PM
Parvovirus (MLV)
Initial (e.g. Intervet Progard Puppy) 9 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 - 20 weeks 1st Annual BoosterAt 1 year MLV Distemper/ Parvovirus only Re-Administration Interval None needed.
Duration of immunity 7.5 years by studies. Probably lifetime. Longer studies pending.
Comments At 6 weeks of age, only 30% of puppies are protected but 100% are exposed to the virus at the vet clinic.



WHAT???:eek::eek: A vet claims that 100% of puppies presenting at a vet clinic for vaccines will be exposed to the Parvovirus???

IMHO, this obviously inflammatory and libelous statement negates anything that she wrote that might have had any merit.

GypsyQ
Nov. 3, 2009, 02:15 PM
The vet I use recommends separating the DHPP and Lepto portions of the vaccine. In a dog who was given its proper puppy series, DHPP can go to every 3 years. However, if your dog is at risk for Lepto (around livestock, wildlife, streams etc), that is given annually.

TripleRipple
Nov. 3, 2009, 02:16 PM
To clarify. There is now a 3 year DHLPP. THere is still an annual DHLPP. If your vet gives the three year it is obviously fine to go three years, however, don't go three years if you have only received the annual vaccine. Also, expect topay more for the 3 year vaccine.

There is no need to have a Rabies vaccine yearly (after the 1st one). The vaccine has been tested to have high titers as far out as 10 years, however three years has been determined to be the "catch all". No need to help in the vaccine resistance by overvaccinating.

Good clarification. There is both an annual and a 3 year. My rescue dog in fact was initially given an annual DHLPP, and per the vet's recommendation, we switched to a 3 year DHLPP for the future.

As to the rabies, states may vary, but Oregon mandates a 3 year rabies vaccine for any dog with permanent canine teeth or over 6 months old (ORS 433.365). I believe there is still an OAR (333-019-0017, DHS?) that allows a rabies exemption for health reasons that your vet can file.

My rescue dog was also given a one year rabies vaccine when they took her in to the rescue, and not a 3 year. I have some guesses but am not certain why they did this. Once that time passed, we gave her the 3 year rabies vaccine.

NEWT
Nov. 3, 2009, 02:32 PM
Wow, thanks for all the responses. You folks really did your homework! Called a few vets here in Maine. Most were recommending getting the DHPP for the first three years in a row. Then every few years after that. My dog was given a one year rabies vaccine last Nov. at the dog rescue in NC. I'll take her in for a three year vaccine.

Iron Horse Farm
Nov. 3, 2009, 02:36 PM
My rescue dog was also given a one year rabies vaccine when they took her in to the rescue, and not a 3 year. I have some guesses but am not certain why they did this. Once that time passed, we gave her the 3 year rabies vaccine.

Because the first Rabies vaccine must ALWAYS be the one year. Since your dog came into a rescue with no proof of previous vaccination, they started as if she had never been vaccinated and gave the first Rabies vaccine, which is a one year.

TripleRipple
Nov. 3, 2009, 03:18 PM
Thanks IHF, mystery solved on that one. It has been awhile, but from all the pups we've raised, I do vaguely recall that they were given a first rabies vac of shorter duration (probably the one year) and then next the 3 year.

I haven't had a pup for years so have only focused on what the adults need, well, until Becca arrived with her one year shots (age WAG 6-8).

FalseImpression
Nov. 3, 2009, 03:30 PM
Mine gets the rabies vaccine every 3 years, DA2PPV every 2 years and lepto every year.

One question re rescue dogs from the South: were they checked for Heartworm and do you recheck them? Some people here are blaming all the rescues from the South for the number of heart worm positive dogs now. Of course, this is not contagious from one dog to the next, but they claim that since more dogs are infected, the mosquitoes have a broader selection; 2) there are enough stray dogs in Canada and we don't need to import more.

I do transport dogs from the US in Canada (and it is amazing how quickly they get adopted!) and I also believe that Canadian dogs not immunized and/or going South in the winter help the mosquitoes appetite as well. Just wondering how often heart worm is tested on southern rescues in the States. My vet does the test every 2 years since my dog is on preventative medication for 6 months every year.

BuddyRoo
Nov. 3, 2009, 05:18 PM
IF the dogs are on hw preventative year round, then testing annually or every other year is okay.

BUT, especially if you're in a warmer climate where mosquitoes can live most of the year, if a dog has been off HWP for more than 2 mos, I would test.

pAin't_Misbehavin'
Nov. 3, 2009, 05:38 PM
Called a few vets here in Maine. Most were recommending getting the DHPP for the first three years in a row. Then every few years after that.

That's exactly what my vet recommends.:) Of course, I can't board any of my dogs or cats at a kennel, because they all require yearly shots. :sigh:

CarolinaGirl
Nov. 3, 2009, 05:44 PM
The clinic I worked at, in coastal mosquito infested South Carolina, tested every year. If owners wanted to pick up more HW meds within the year of their current test and we didn't have proof that the dog had been on HW preventative (or we were sure they may have missed a month) we either required a new test or they had to sign a waiver in order to buy more or get an rx for more.

NEWT
Nov. 3, 2009, 06:24 PM
FirstImpression, I adopted my dog from www.helpsaveone.org and yes, they do test for HW. They will pull some dogs that have HW but they stay at foster homes until they get finished with the hw medication. Once they are hw free they adopt them out. Helpsaveone is a terrific tiny organization run by two 23 year old girls. They do an amazing job. I'm sad that they are having real financial problems now and are not currently pulling any dogs from high kill shelters. I hope they can get the funds to keep going.

FalseImpression
Nov. 3, 2009, 06:39 PM
My dog is on preventative for 6 months since not many mosquitoes are around the rest of the year in Canada. :)

The argument I hear also is that negative result is very often inaccurate! so you have to retest. Sigh! I have no qualms transporting the dogs from the US shelters as I know they have been tested by the organizations that pull them and they will be retested by the rescues that receive them. If they do test positive, they are also held back in foster homes until the treatment is done. However, some people refuse to accept this and prefer to bash the volunteers that help give these dogs a second chance.

Ghazzu
Nov. 3, 2009, 06:45 PM
No need to help in the vaccine resistance by overvaccinating.


What in Sam Hill is "vaccine resistance"?

Tom King
Nov. 3, 2009, 06:51 PM
We have never vaccinated for Lepto, Corona, or Bordetella. We check titers, which isn't cheap, and have never found that any of our dogs needed anything after their first set of puppy shots. The past several years we have cut back on puppy shots to two with still the same titers results. I wish we didn't have to vaccinate for rabies so often as the State Law requires.

Ghazzu
Nov. 3, 2009, 06:58 PM
Rabies schedules are often legally mandated.
For the others, after the initial series, q 3 years is usually fine.
Lepto is problematic, for my money. While the disease is nasty, the bacterin has a relatively higher level of adverse reactions compared to other vaccines.
I don't use it.

chaltagor
Nov. 3, 2009, 08:00 PM
What in Sam Hill is "vaccine resistance"?

Haven't you heard of all those rabid rabies vaccinated animals running around? Oh, I guess not as The Vaccine Resistance Will Not Be Televised (or taught in any school or journal). :lol:

cssutton
Nov. 3, 2009, 09:06 PM
Since there is a lot of difference between what is technically correct and what is practical, here goes my opinion on what is practical.

Every state has a rabies vaccination law. It matters not how long the immunity lasts, it is the state law that mandates.

In NC, all dogs and cats 4 months old and older must be vaccinated.

Rabies for horses, although not required by law, is wise since horses are not under 24 hour supervision.

Horses should be vaccinated once each year.

As for the DHLPP, veterinarians are really good at putting a guilt trip on you and charging you for your guilt.

I have owned hundreds of hounds over the years and I firmly believe that if puppies are vaccinated at 6 weeks, 9 weeks and 12 to 14 weeks, they are immune for life.

Of course, the average hound runs 7 years or less and rarely lives over 12 as hound breeders breed for many traits but not for longevity as one would when breeding for pets or other reasons.

So a dog that lives to be 15 or so might outlive his immunity, but I personally doubt it.

Of course, my wife pays absolutely no attention to me and what I know, so our house dog gets treated like she is the President.

If it were up to me, I probably would repeat vaccinations for a house dog at 7 years or so, except for rabies of course as that is mandated by state law.

The risk in not following state law regarding rabies shots is that should your pet be reported as exposed to rabies and the shots are not up to date, the dog warden will confiscate your pet and give you the option of having it killed or quarantined for a very long time which varies from state to state.

And it is very expensive.

Now I am sure that no one will follow my advice as no one is logical when it comes to their pet, but that is my experience and it is considerable.

And hounds are exposed to everything that exists while they are hunting.

CSSJR

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Ben and Me
Nov. 3, 2009, 10:00 PM
From what I understand, only 1 distemper vaccine has been proven effective by the manufacturer to last for 3 years -- Intervet Continuum 3. It is not a vaccine that protects against Lepto, so if you want Lepto protection, you'll have to do a separate vaccine.

http://www.continuum3.com/canine_dap.asp

The others haven't been tested by the manufacturers to last for 3 years, so you aren't guaranteed 3 years of protection even though you may get 3 years of protection out of them. Whether or not your vet recommends them every 3 years (without doing titers) depends on how comfortable your vet is with the potential liability of recommending a vaccine that is only guaranteed by the manufacturer to provide protection for 1 year.

As others have mentioned, the frequency of Rabies vaccinations depends on state law--at least in NC.

Tom, in NC, as long as your dog isn't more than a year overdue for Rabies, they should only be getting the vaccine every 3 years. They get a "1 year rabies" for their first shot (puppy or dog w/ unknown vaccine history) and then after that, as long as they stay up to date, only need one every 3 years. :) They did make the law better recently -- it used to be that if your dog was over a month overdue, he had to get a 1 year vaccine. Now you have a year grace period.

D Osborn
Nov. 3, 2009, 10:14 PM
There is a newer Lepto that I started giving to my youngest dogs, as they go where horses and cows do-it is a different one, they changed the stuff the shot goes in (medium?) and have had very few problems. Lepto is nasty, and can do a lot of damage, I was glad to do this one-
I do puppy shots, Rabies at 16 week, and do them all separate. At a year, boosters then Lepto, then lepto every year.
I do Rabies every three years DHLp every 3-5, and will not do the canine influenza they are pushing down here it is pissing me off:mad: as we don't even have it in the area!!!

Petstorejunkie
Nov. 4, 2009, 01:47 AM
To clarify. There is now a 3 year DHLPP. THere is still an annual DHLPP. If your vet gives the three year it is obviously fine to go three years, however, don't go three years if you have only received the annual vaccine. Also, expect topay more for the 3 year vaccine.

There is no need to have a Rabies vaccine yearly (after the 1st one). The vaccine has been tested to have high titers as far out as 10 years, however three years has been determined to be the "catch all". No need to help in the vaccine resistance by overvaccinating.


Just to clarify (I have received training on vaccinology from 3 pharm companies) There is NOTHING different in the 1 year bottle versus the 3 year bottle. You are paying for the additional research that went into putting a 3 year label on the product.

Titer yearly, vaccinate rabies according to your state's law, and booster with yearly labeled vax based on titer results = safe pet, happy wallet

kdow
Nov. 4, 2009, 02:59 AM
Just to clarify (I have received training on vaccinology from 3 pharm companies) There is NOTHING different in the 1 year bottle versus the 3 year bottle. You are paying for the additional research that went into putting a 3 year label on the product.

Titer yearly, vaccinate rabies according to your state's law, and booster with yearly labeled vax based on titer results = safe pet, happy wallet

Could someone clarify this? My dog is a rescue and they didn't specify if he got a one year or three year rabies vaccination when they had him (he got it as per standard practice, along with a bunch of other stuff - chances are pretty good he's been vaccinated before as we do know he was a pet, he'd been fixed, etc.) and it didn't even occur to me that there was a difference, as we just do every three years with our other dog, so I figured it would be the same for Pirate.

Obviously I want to make sure he's protected, though - particularly because we have plenty of raccoons around - but I don't want to overload his system with vaccinations if it's not necessary. It seems like a titer might be the way to go - any idea what kind of cost range I should expect for that? (I know exact cost will vary, but I'm just wondering if it's likely to be less than $50, $50-$100, $100+, etc. :) )

Ghazzu
Nov. 4, 2009, 07:20 AM
Could someone clarify this? My dog is a rescue and they didn't specify if he got a one year or three year rabies vaccination when they had him (he got it as per standard practice, along with a bunch of other stuff - chances are pretty good he's been vaccinated before as we do know he was a pet, he'd been fixed, etc.) and it didn't even occur to me that there was a difference, as we just do every three years with our other dog, so I figured it would be the same for Pirate.

Obviously I want to make sure he's protected, though - particularly because we have plenty of raccoons around - but I don't want to overload his system with vaccinations if it's not necessary. It seems like a titer might be the way to go - any idea what kind of cost range I should expect for that? (I know exact cost will vary, but I'm just wondering if it's likely to be less than $50, $50-$100, $100+, etc. :) )

If you don't have documentation of two rabies vaccinations given within 365 days of one another, then, in most places, the dog will get a rabies certificate stating the vaccine is valid for one year. If the dog receives a Subsequent rabies vaccine within a year of that with a vaccine labelled for a 3 year DOI, it, and subsequent vaccinations will be valid fro a 3 year period.

Ben and Me
Nov. 4, 2009, 08:58 AM
It seems like a titer might be the way to go - any idea what kind of cost range I should expect for that? (I know exact cost will vary, but I'm just wondering if it's likely to be less than $50, $50-$100, $100+, etc. )


Might be cheaper just to get him re-vaccinated. :winkgrin:

The rescue group should have a record of what vaccines he was given, and should have sent you home with that so that you could give it to your vet (so your vet would know when he was due for various things). If they didn't send it home with you, give them a call. If the vaccine history was unknown, the rescue should not have sent your dog home with you without giving another rabies vaccine. I'd imagine that they did--every dog I've seen that has come from a rescue group has had a rabies booster before being adopted out.

Regardless of whether or not you think he probably got a rabies vaccine in the past, unless you have proof, your vet is probably required to rebooster after a year.

kdow
Nov. 4, 2009, 03:50 PM
Might be cheaper just to get him re-vaccinated. :winkgrin:

The rescue group should have a record of what vaccines he was given, and should have sent you home with that so that you could give it to your vet (so your vet would know when he was due for various things). If they didn't send it home with you, give them a call. If the vaccine history was unknown, the rescue should not have sent your dog home with you without giving another rabies vaccine. I'd imagine that they did--every dog I've seen that has come from a rescue group has had a rabies booster before being adopted out.

Regardless of whether or not you think he probably got a rabies vaccine in the past, unless you have proof, your vet is probably required to rebooster after a year.

Yeah, he got a bunch of stuff - I know rabies was one, and they put him on a course of dewormer also. (Which I remember because we had to give him the last dose and it was a powder made his food look disgusting. Though he didn't seem to mind. :) )

I know they have him in their database, though, so I'll just call up and see. It's easy enough to take him to our vet if we need to. I just didn't realize there was a difference between one and three year rabies vaccines - our other dog has only had it once every three years since I moved home. (I think it was still annual the last time I had a dog before that.)